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EIPsERC-998
ERC-998

Composable Non-Fungible Token

Extends a ERC-721 to own other ERC-721 and ERC-20 tokens.
DraftStandards Track: ERC
创建时间: 2018-07-07
关联 EIP: EIP-20, EIP-165, EIP-721
Matt Lockyer <mattdlockyer@gmail.com>, Nick Mudge <nick@perfectabstractions.com>, Jordan Schalm <jordan.schalm@gmail.com>, sebastian echeverry <sebastian.echeverry@robotouniverse.com>, Zainan Victor Zhou (@xinbenlv)
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Abstract

An extension of the ERC-721 standard to enable ERC-721 tokens to own other ERC-721 tokens and ERC-20 tokens.

An extension of the ERC-20 and ERC-223 https://github.com/ethereum/EIPs/issues/223 standards to enable ERC-20 and ERC-223 tokens to be owned by ERC-721 tokens.

This specification covers four different kinds of composable tokens:

  1. ERC998ERC721 top-down composable tokens that receive, hold and transfer ERC-721 tokens
  2. ERC998ERC20 top-down composable tokens that receive, hold and transfer ERC-20 tokens
  3. ERC998ERC721 bottom-up composable tokens that attach themselves to other ERC-721 tokens.
  4. ERC998ERC20 bottom-up composable tokens that attach themselves to ERC-721 tokens.

which map to

  1. An ERC998ERC721 top-down composable is an ERC-721 token with additional functionality for owning other ERC-721 tokens.
  2. An ERC998ERC20 top-down composable is an ERC-721 token with additional functionality for owning ERC-20 tokens.
  3. An ERC998ERC721 bottom-up composable is an ERC-721 token with additional functionality for being owned by an ERC-721 token.
  4. An ERC998ERC20 bottom-up composable is an ERC-20 token with additional functionality for being owned by an ERC-721 token.

A top-down composable contract stores and keeps track of child tokens for each of its tokens.

A bottom-up composable contract stores and keeps track of a parent token for each its tokens.

With composable tokens it is possible to compose lists or trees of ERC-721 and ERC-20 tokens connected by ownership. Any such structure will have a single owner address at the root of the structure that is the owner of the entire composition. The entire composition can be transferred with one transaction by changing the root owner.

Different composables, top-down and bottom-up, have their advantages and disadvantages which are explained in the Rational section. It is possible for a token to be one or more kinds of composable token.

A non-fungible token is compliant and Composable of this EIP if it implements one or more of the following interfaces:

  • ERC998ERC721TopDown
  • ERC998ERC20TopDown
  • ERC998ERC721BottomUp
  • ERC998ERC20BottomUp

Specification

ERC-721

ERC998ERC721 top-down, ERC998ERC20 top-down, and ERC998ERC721 bottom-up composable contracts must implement the ERC-721 interface.

ERC-20

ERC998ERC20 bottom-up composable contracts must implement the ERC-20 interface.

ERC-165

The ERC-165 standard must be applied to each ERC-998 interface that is used.

Authentication

Authenticating whether a user or contract can execute some action works the same for both ERC998ERC721 top-down and ERC998ERC721 bottom-up composables.

A rootOwner refers to the owner address at the top of a tree of composables and ERC-721 tokens.

Authentication within any composable is done by finding the rootOwner and comparing it to msg.sender, the return result of getApproved(tokenId) and the return result of isApprovedForAll(rootOwner, msg.sender). If a match is found then authentication passes, otherwise authentication fails and the contract throws.

Here is an example of authentication code:

address rootOwner = address(rootOwnerOf(_tokenId)); require(rootOwner == msg.sender || isApprovedForAll(rootOwner,msg.sender) || getApproved(tokenId) == msg.sender;

The approve(address _approved, uint256 _tokenId) and getApproved(uint256 _tokenId) ERC-721 functions are implemented specifically for the rootOwner. This enables a tree of composables to be transferred to a new rootOwner without worrying about which addresses have been approved in child composables, because any prior approves can only be used by the prior rootOwner.

Here are example implementations:

function approve(address _approved, uint256 _tokenId) external { address rootOwner = address(rootOwnerOf(_tokenId)); require(rootOwner == msg.sender || isApprovedForAll(rootOwner,msg.sender)); rootOwnerAndTokenIdToApprovedAddress[rootOwner][_tokenId] = _approved; emit Approval(rootOwner, _approved, _tokenId); } function getApproved(uint256 _tokenId) public view returns (address) { address rootOwner = address(rootOwnerOf(_tokenId)); return rootOwnerAndTokenIdToApprovedAddress[rootOwner][_tokenId]; }

Traversal

The rootOwner of a composable is gotten by calling rootOwnerOf(uint256 _tokenId) or rootOwnerOfChild(address _childContract, uint256 _childTokenId). These functions are used by top-down and bottom-up composables to traverse up the tree of composables and ERC-721 tokens to find the rootOwner.

ERC998ERC721 top-down and bottom-up composables are interoperable with each other. It is possible for a top-down composable to own a bottom-up composable or for a top-down composable to own an ERC-721 token that owns a bottom-up token. In any configuration calling rootOwnerOf(uint256 _tokenID) on a composable will return the root owner address at the top of the ownership tree.

It is important to get the traversal logic of rootOwnerOf right. The logic for rootOwnerOf is the same whether or not a composable is bottom-up or top-down or both. Here is the logic:

Logic for rootOwnerOf(uint256 _tokenId)

If the token is a bottom-up composable and has a parent token then call rootOwnerOf for the parent token.
    If the call was successful then the returned address is the rootOwner.
    Otherwise call rootOwnerOfChild for the parent token.
        If the call was successful then the returned address is the rootOwner.
        Otherwise get the owner address of the token and that is the rootOwner.
Otherwise call rootOwnerOfChild for the token
    If the call was successful then the returned address is the rootOwner.
    Otherwise get the owner address of the token and that is the rootOwner.

Calling rootOwnerOfChild for a token means the following logic:

// Logic for calling rootOwnerOfChild for a tokenId address tokenOwner = ownerOf(tokenId); address childContract = address(this); bytes32 rootOwner = ERC998ERC721(tokenOwner).rootOwnerOfChild(childContract, tokenId);

But understand that the real call to rootOwnerOfChild should be made with assembly so that the code can check if the call failed and so that the staticcall opcode is used to ensure that no state is modified.

Tokens/contracts that implement the above authentication and traversal functionality are "composable aware".

Composable Transfer Function Parameter Format

Composable functions that make transfers follow the same parameter format: from:to:what.

For example the getChild(address _from, uint256 _tokenId, address _childContract, uint256 _childTokenId) composable function transfers an ERC-721 token from an address to a top-down composable. The _from parameter is the from, the _tokenId parameter is the to and the address _childContract, uint256 _childTokenId parameters are the what.

Another example is the safeTransferChild(uint256 _fromTokenId, address _to, address _childContract, uint256 _childTokenId) function. The _fromTokenId is the from, the _to is the to and the address _childContract, address _childTokenId parameters are the what.

transferFrom/safeTransferFrom Functions Do Not Transfer Tokens Owned By Tokens

In bottom-up and top-down composable contracts the transferFrom and safeTransferFrom functions must throw if they are called directly to transfer a token that is owned by another token.

The reason for this is that these functions do not explicitly specify which token owns a token to be transferred. See the rational section for more information about this.

transferFrom/safeTransferFrom functions must be used to transfer tokens that are owned by an address.

ERC-721 Top-Down Composable

ERC-721 top-down composables act as containers for ERC-721 tokens.

ERC-721 top-down composables are ERC-721 tokens that can receive, hold and transfer ERC-721 tokens.

There are two ways to transfer a ERC-721 token to a top-down composable:

  1. Use the function safeTransferFrom(address _from, address _to, uint256 _tokenId, bytes data) function. The _to argument is the top-down composable contract address. The bytes data argument holds the integer value of the top-down composable tokenId that the ERC-721 token is transferred to.
  2. Call approve in the ERC-721 token contract for the top-down composable contract. Then call getChild in the composable contract.

The first ways is for ERC-721 contracts that have a safeTransferFrom function. The second way is for contracts that do not have this function such as cryptokitties.

Here is an example of transferring ERC-721 token 3 from an address to top-down composable token 6:

uint256 tokenId = 6; bytes memory tokenIdBytes = new bytes(32); assembly { mstore(add(tokenIdBytes, 32), tokenId) } ERC721(contractAddress).safeTransferFrom(userAddress, composableAddress, 3, tokenIdBytes);

Every ERC-721 top-down composable compliant contract must implement the ERC998ERC721TopDown interface.

The ERC998ERC721TopDownEnumerable and ERC998ERC20TopDownEnumerable interfaces are optional.

pragma solidity ^0.4.24; /// @title `ERC998ERC721` Top-Down Composable Non-Fungible Token /// @dev See https://github.com/ethereum/EIPs/blob/master/EIPS/eip-998.md /// Note: the ERC-165 identifier for this interface is 0xcde244d9 interface ERC998ERC721TopDown { /// @dev This emits when a token receives a child token. /// @param _from The prior owner of the token. /// @param _toTokenId The token that receives the child token. event ReceivedChild( address indexed _from, uint256 indexed _toTokenId, address indexed _childContract, uint256 _childTokenId ); /// @dev This emits when a child token is transferred from a token to an address. /// @param _fromTokenId The parent token that the child token is being transferred from. /// @param _to The new owner address of the child token. event TransferChild( uint256 indexed _fromTokenId, address indexed _to, address indexed _childContract, uint256 _childTokenId ); /// @notice Get the root owner of tokenId. /// @param _tokenId The token to query for a root owner address /// @return rootOwner The root owner at the top of tree of tokens and ERC-998 magic value. function rootOwnerOf(uint256 _tokenId) public view returns (bytes32 rootOwner); /// @notice Get the root owner of a child token. /// @param _childContract The contract address of the child token. /// @param _childTokenId The tokenId of the child. /// @return rootOwner The root owner at the top of tree of tokens and ERC-998 magic value. function rootOwnerOfChild( address _childContract, uint256 _childTokenId ) public view returns (bytes32 rootOwner); /// @notice Get the parent tokenId of a child token. /// @param _childContract The contract address of the child token. /// @param _childTokenId The tokenId of the child. /// @return parentTokenOwner The parent address of the parent token and ERC-998 magic value /// @return parentTokenId The parent tokenId of _tokenId function ownerOfChild( address _childContract, uint256 _childTokenId ) external view returns ( bytes32 parentTokenOwner, uint256 parentTokenId ); /// @notice A token receives a child token /// @param _operator The address that caused the transfer. /// @param _from The owner of the child token. /// @param _childTokenId The token that is being transferred to the parent. /// @param _data Up to the first 32 bytes contains an integer which is the receiving parent tokenId. function onERC721Received( address _operator, address _from, uint256 _childTokenId, bytes _data ) external returns(bytes4); /// @notice Transfer child token from top-down composable to address. /// @param _fromTokenId The owning token to transfer from. /// @param _to The address that receives the child token /// @param _childContract The ERC-721 contract of the child token. /// @param _childTokenId The tokenId of the token that is being transferred. function transferChild( uint256 _fromTokenId, address _to, address _childContract, uint256 _childTokenId ) external; /// @notice Transfer child token from top-down composable to address. /// @param _fromTokenId The owning token to transfer from. /// @param _to The address that receives the child token /// @param _childContract The ERC-721 contract of the child token. /// @param _childTokenId The tokenId of the token that is being transferred. function safeTransferChild( uint256 _fromTokenId, address _to, address _childContract, uint256 _childTokenId ) external; /// @notice Transfer child token from top-down composable to address. /// @param _fromTokenId The owning token to transfer from. /// @param _to The address that receives the child token /// @param _childContract The ERC-721 contract of the child token. /// @param _childTokenId The tokenId of the token that is being transferred. /// @param _data Additional data with no specified format function safeTransferChild( uint256 _fromTokenId, address _to, address _childContract, uint256 _childTokenId, bytes _data ) external; /// @notice Transfer bottom-up composable child token from top-down composable to other ERC-721 token. /// @param _fromTokenId The owning token to transfer from. /// @param _toContract The ERC-721 contract of the receiving token /// @param _toTokenId The receiving token /// @param _childContract The bottom-up composable contract of the child token. /// @param _childTokenId The token that is being transferred. /// @param _data Additional data with no specified format function transferChildToParent( uint256 _fromTokenId, address _toContract, uint256 _toTokenId, address _childContract, uint256 _childTokenId, bytes _data ) external; /// @notice Get a child token from an ERC-721 contract. /// @param _from The address that owns the child token. /// @param _tokenId The token that becomes the parent owner /// @param _childContract The ERC-721 contract of the child token /// @param _childTokenId The tokenId of the child token function getChild( address _from, uint256 _tokenId, address _childContract, uint256 _childTokenId ) external; }

rootOwnerOf 1

/// @notice Get the root owner of tokenId. /// @param _tokenId The token to query for a root owner address /// @return rootOwner The root owner at the top of tree of tokens and ERC-998 magic value. function rootOwnerOf(uint256 _tokenId) public view returns (bytes32 rootOwner);

This function traverses token owners until the the root owner address of _tokenId is found.

The first 4 bytes of rootOwner contain the ERC-998 magic value 0xcd740db5. The last 20 bytes contain the root owner address.

The magic value is returned because this function may be called on contracts when it is unknown if the contracts have a rootOwnerOf function. The magic value is used in such calls to ensure a valid return value is received.

If it is unknown whether a contract has the rootOwnerOf function then the first four bytes of the rootOwner return value must be compared to 0xcd740db5.

0xcd740db5 is equal to:

this.rootOwnerOf.selector ^ this.rootOwnerOfChild.selector ^ this.tokenOwnerOf.selector ^ this.ownerOfChild.selector;

Here is an example of a value returned by rootOwnerOf. 0xcd740db50000000000000000e5240103e1ff986a2c8ae6b6728ffe0d9a395c59

rootOwnerOfChild

/// @notice Get the root owner of a child token. /// @param _childContract The contract address of the child token. /// @param _childTokenId The tokenId of the child. /// @return rootOwner The root owner at the top of tree of tokens and ERC-998 magic value. function rootOwnerOfChild( address _childContract, uint256 _childTokenId ) public view returns (bytes32 rootOwner);

This function traverses token owners until the the root owner address of the supplied child token is found.

The first 4 bytes of rootOwner contain the ERC-998 magic value 0xcd740db5. The last 20 bytes contain the root owner address.

The magic value is returned because this function may be called on contracts when it is unknown if the contracts have a rootOwnerOf function. The magic value is used in such calls to ensure a valid return value is received.

If it is unknown whether a contract has the rootOwnerOfChild function then the first four bytes of the rootOwner return value must be compared to 0xcd740db5.

ownerOfChild

/// @notice Get the parent tokenId of a child token. /// @param _childContract The contract address of the child token. /// @param _childTokenId The tokenId of the child. /// @return parentTokenOwner The parent address of the parent token and ERC-998 magic value /// @return parentTokenId The parent tokenId of _tokenId function ownerOfChild( address _childContract, uint256 _childTokenId ) external view returns ( address parentTokenOwner, uint256 parentTokenId );

This function is used to get the parent tokenId of a child token and get the owner address of the parent token.

The first 4 bytes of parentTokenOwner contain the ERC-998 magic value 0xcd740db5. The last 20 bytes contain the parent token owner address.

The magic value is returned because this function may be called on contracts when it is unknown if the contracts have a ownerOfChild function. The magic value is used in such calls to ensure a valid return value is received.

If it is unknown whether a contract has the ownerOfChild function then the first four bytes of the parentTokenOwner return value must be compared to 0xcd740db5.

onERC721Received

/// @notice A token receives a child token /// @param _operator The address that caused the transfer. /// @param _from The prior owner of the child token. /// @param _childTokenId The token that is being transferred to the parent. /// @param _data Up to the first 32 bytes contains an integer which is the receiving parent tokenId. function onERC721Received( address _operator, address _from, uint256 _childTokenId, bytes _data ) external returns(bytes4);

This is a function defined in the ERC-721 standard. This function is called in an ERC-721 contract when safeTransferFrom is called. The bytes _data argument contains an integer value from 1 to 32 bytes long that is the parent tokenId that an ERC-721 token is transferred to.

The onERC721Received function is how a top-down composable contract is notified that an ERC-721 token has been transferred to it and what tokenId in the top-down composable is the parent tokenId.

The return value for onERC721Received is the magic value 0x150b7a02 which is equal to bytes4(keccak256(abi.encodePacked("onERC721Received(address,address,uint256,bytes)"))).

transferChild

/// @notice Transfer child token from top-down composable to address. /// @param _fromTokenId The owning token to transfer from. /// @param _to The address that receives the child token /// @param _childContract The ERC-721 contract of the child token. /// @param _childTokenId The tokenId of the token that is being transferred. function transferChild( uint256 _fromTokenId, address _to, address _childContract, uint256 _childTokenId ) external;

This function authenticates msg.sender and transfers a child token from a top-down composable to a different address.

This function makes this call within it:

ERC721(_childContract).transferFrom(this, _to, _childTokenId);

safeTransferChild 1

/// @notice Transfer child token from top-down composable to address. /// @param _fromTokenId The owning token to transfer from. /// @param _to The address that receives the child token /// @param _childContract The ERC-721 contract of the child token. /// @param _childTokenId The tokenId of the token that is being transferred. function safeTransferChild( uint256 _fromTokenId, address _to, address _childContract, uint256 _childTokenId ) external;

This function authenticates msg.sender and transfers a child token from a top-down composable to a different address.

This function makes this call within it:

ERC721(_childContract).safeTransferFrom(this, _to, _childTokenId);

safeTransferChild 2

/// @notice Transfer child token from top-down composable to address or other top-down composable. /// @param _fromTokenId The owning token to transfer from. /// @param _to The address that receives the child token /// @param _childContract The ERC721 contract of the child token. /// @param _childTokenId The tokenId of the token that is being transferred. /// @param _data Additional data with no specified format, can be used to specify tokenId to transfer to function safeTransferChild( uint256 _fromTokenId, address _to, address _childContract, uint256 _childTokenId, bytes _data ) external;

This function authenticates msg.sender and transfers a child token from a top-down composable to a different address or to a different top-down composable.

A child token is transferred to a different top-down composable if the _to address is a top-down composable contract and bytes _data is supplied an integer representing the parent tokenId.

This function makes this call within it:

ERC721(_childContract).safeTransferFrom(this, _to, _childTokenId, _data);

transferChildToParent

/// @notice Transfer bottom-up composable child token from top-down composable to other ERC-721 token. /// @param _fromTokenId The owning token to transfer from. /// @param _toContract The ERC-721 contract of the receiving token /// @param _toToken The receiving token /// @param _childContract The bottom-up composable contract of the child token. /// @param _childTokenId The token that is being transferred. /// @param _data Additional data with no specified format function transferChildToParent( uint256 _fromTokenId, address _toContract, uint256 _toTokenId, address _childContract, uint256 _childTokenId, bytes _data ) external

This function authenticates msg.sender and transfers a child bottom-up composable token from a top-down composable to a different ERC-721 token. This function can only be used when the child token is a bottom-up composable token. It is designed to transfer a bottom-up composable token from a top-down composable to an ERC-721 token (bottom-up style) in one transaction.

This function makes this call within it:

ERC998ERC721BottomUp(_childContract).transferToParent( address(this), _toContract, _toTokenId, _childTokenId, _data );

getChild

/// @notice Get a child token from an ERC-721 contract. /// @param _from The address that owns the child token. /// @param _tokenId The token that becomes the parent owner /// @param _childContract The ERC-721 contract of the child token /// @param _childTokenId The tokenId of the child token function getChild( address _from, uint256 _tokenId, address _childContract, uint256 _childTokenId ) external;

This function is used to transfer an ERC-721 token when its contract does not have a safeTransferChild(uint256 _fromTokenId, address _to, address _childContract, uint256 _childTokenId, bytes _data) function.

A transfer with this function is done in two steps:

  1. The owner of the ERC-721 token calls approve or setApprovalForAll in the ERC-721 contract for the top-down composable contract.
  2. The owner of the ERC-721 token calls getChild in the top-down composable contract for the ERC-721 token.

The getChild function must authenticate that msg.sender is the owner of the ERC-721 token in the ERC-721 contract or is approved or an operator of the ERC-721 token in the ERC-721 contract.

ERC-721 Top-Down Composable Enumeration

Optional interface for top-down composable enumeration:

/// @dev The ERC-165 identifier for this interface is 0xa344afe4 interface ERC998ERC721TopDownEnumerable { /// @notice Get the total number of child contracts with tokens that are owned by tokenId. /// @param _tokenId The parent token of child tokens in child contracts /// @return uint256 The total number of child contracts with tokens owned by tokenId. function totalChildContracts(uint256 _tokenId) external view returns(uint256); /// @notice Get child contract by tokenId and index /// @param _tokenId The parent token of child tokens in child contract /// @param _index The index position of the child contract /// @return childContract The contract found at the tokenId and index. function childContractByIndex( uint256 _tokenId, uint256 _index ) external view returns (address childContract); /// @notice Get the total number of child tokens owned by tokenId that exist in a child contract. /// @param _tokenId The parent token of child tokens /// @param _childContract The child contract containing the child tokens /// @return uint256 The total number of child tokens found in child contract that are owned by tokenId. function totalChildTokens( uint256 _tokenId, address _childContract ) external view returns(uint256); /// @notice Get child token owned by tokenId, in child contract, at index position /// @param _tokenId The parent token of the child token /// @param _childContract The child contract of the child token /// @param _index The index position of the child token. /// @return childTokenId The child tokenId for the parent token, child token and index function childTokenByIndex( uint256 _tokenId, address _childContract, uint256 _index ) external view returns (uint256 childTokenId); }

ERC-20 Top-Down Composable

ERC-20 top-down composables act as containers for ERC-20 tokens.

ERC-20 top-down composables are ERC-721 tokens that can receive, hold and transfer ERC-20 tokens.

There are two ways to transfer ERC-20 tokens to an ERC-20 Top-Down Composable:

  1. Use the transfer(address _to, uint256 _value, bytes _data); function from the ERC-223 contract. The _to argument is the ERC-20 top-down composable contract address. The _value argument is how many ERC-20 tokens to transfer. The bytes argument holds the integer value of the top-down composable tokenId that receives the ERC-20 tokens.
  2. Call approve in the ERC-20 contract for the ERC-20 top-down composable contract. Then call getERC20(address _from, uint256 _tokenId, address _erc20Contract, uint256 _value) from the ERC-20 top-down composable contract.

The first way is for ERC-20 contracts that support the ERC-223 standard. The second way is for contracts that do not.

ERC-20 top-down composables implement the following interface:

/// @title `ERC998ERC20` Top-Down Composable Non-Fungible Token /// @dev See https://github.com/ethereum/EIPs/blob/master/EIPS/eip-998.md /// Note: the ERC-165 identifier for this interface is 0x7294ffed interface ERC998ERC20TopDown { /// @dev This emits when a token receives ERC-20 tokens. /// @param _from The prior owner of the token. /// @param _toTokenId The token that receives the ERC-20 tokens. /// @param _erc20Contract The ERC-20 contract. /// @param _value The number of ERC-20 tokens received. event ReceivedERC20( address indexed _from, uint256 indexed _toTokenId, address indexed _erc20Contract, uint256 _value ); /// @dev This emits when a token transfers ERC-20 tokens. /// @param _tokenId The token that owned the ERC-20 tokens. /// @param _to The address that receives the ERC-20 tokens. /// @param _erc20Contract The ERC-20 contract. /// @param _value The number of ERC-20 tokens transferred. event TransferERC20( uint256 indexed _fromTokenId, address indexed _to, address indexed _erc20Contract, uint256 _value ); /// @notice A token receives ERC-20 tokens /// @param _from The prior owner of the ERC-20 tokens /// @param _value The number of ERC-20 tokens received /// @param _data Up to the first 32 bytes contains an integer which is the receiving tokenId. function tokenFallback(address _from, uint256 _value, bytes _data) external; /// @notice Look up the balance of ERC-20 tokens for a specific token and ERC-20 contract /// @param _tokenId The token that owns the ERC-20 tokens /// @param _erc20Contract The ERC-20 contract /// @return The number of ERC-20 tokens owned by a token from an ERC-20 contract function balanceOfERC20( uint256 _tokenId, address _erc20Contract ) external view returns(uint256); /// @notice Transfer ERC-20 tokens to address /// @param _tokenId The token to transfer from /// @param _value The address to send the ERC-20 tokens to /// @param _erc20Contract The ERC-20 contract /// @param _value The number of ERC-20 tokens to transfer function transferERC20( uint256 _tokenId, address _to, address _erc20Contract, uint256 _value ) external; /// @notice Transfer ERC-20 tokens to address or ERC-20 top-down composable /// @param _tokenId The token to transfer from /// @param _value The address to send the ERC-20 tokens to /// @param _erc223Contract The `ERC-223` token contract /// @param _value The number of ERC-20 tokens to transfer /// @param _data Additional data with no specified format, can be used to specify tokenId to transfer to function transferERC223( uint256 _tokenId, address _to, address _erc223Contract, uint256 _value, bytes _data ) external; /// @notice Get ERC-20 tokens from ERC-20 contract. /// @param _from The current owner address of the ERC-20 tokens that are being transferred. /// @param _tokenId The token to transfer the ERC-20 tokens to. /// @param _erc20Contract The ERC-20 token contract /// @param _value The number of ERC-20 tokens to transfer function getERC20( address _from, uint256 _tokenId, address _erc20Contract, uint256 _value ) external; }

tokenFallback

/// @notice A token receives ERC-20 tokens /// @param _from The prior owner of the ERC-20 tokens /// @param _value The number of ERC-20 tokens received /// @param _data Up to the first 32 bytes contains an integer which is the receiving tokenId. function tokenFallback(address _from, uint256 _value, bytes _data) external;

This function comes from the ERC-223 which is an extension of the ERC-20 standard. This function is called on the receiving contract from the sending contract when ERC-20 tokens are transferred. This function is how the ERC-20 top-down composable contract gets notified that one of its tokens received ERC-20 tokens. Which token received ERC-20 tokens is specified in the _data parameter.

balanceOfERC20

/// @notice Look up the balance of ERC-20 tokens for a specific token and ERC-20 contract /// @param _tokenId The token that owns the ERC-20 tokens /// @param _erc20Contract The ERC-20 contract /// @return The number of ERC-20 tokens owned by a token from an ERC-20 contract function balanceOfERC20( uint256 _tokenId, address _erc20Contract ) external view returns(uint256);

Gets the balance of ERC-20 tokens owned by a token from a specific ERC-20 contract.

transferERC20

/// @notice Transfer ERC-20 tokens to address /// @param _tokenId The token to transfer from /// @param _value The address to send the ERC-20 tokens to /// @param _erc20Contract The ERC-20 contract /// @param _value The number of ERC-20 tokens to transfer function transferERC20( uint256 _tokenId, address _to, address _erc20Contract, uint256 _value ) external;

This is used to transfer ERC-20 tokens from a token to an address. This function calls ERC20(_erc20Contract).transfer(_to, _value);

This function must authenticate msg.sender.

transferERC223

/// @notice Transfer ERC-20 tokens to address or ERC-20 top-down composable /// @param _tokenId The token to transfer from /// @param _value The address to send the ERC-20 tokens to /// @param _erc223Contract The `ERC-223` token contract /// @param _value The number of ERC-20 tokens to transfer /// @param _data Additional data with no specified format, can be used to specify tokenId to transfer to function transferERC223( uint256 _tokenId, address _to, address _erc223Contract, uint256 _value, bytes _data ) external;

This function is from the ERC-223. It is used to transfer ERC-20 tokens from a token to an address or to another token by putting an integer token value in the _data argument.

This function must authenticate msg.sender.

getERC20

/// @notice Get ERC-20 tokens from ERC-20 contract. /// @param _from The current owner address of the ERC-20 tokens that are being transferred. /// @param _tokenId The token to transfer the ERC-20 tokens to. /// @param _erc20Contract The ERC-20 token contract /// @param _value The number of ERC-20 tokens to transfer function getERC20( address _from, uint256 _tokenId, address _erc20Contract, uint256 _value ) external;

This function is used to transfer ERC-20 tokens to an ERC-20 top-down composable when an ERC-20 contract does not have a transferERC223(uint256 _tokenId, address _to, address _erc223Contract, uint256 _value, bytes _data) function.

Before this function can be used the ERC-20 top-down composable contract address must be approved in the ERC-20 contract to transfer the ERC-20 tokens.

This function must authenticate that msg.sender equals _from or has been approved in the ERC-20 contract.

ERC-20 Top-Down Composable Enumeration

Optional interface for top-down composable enumeration:

/// @dev The ERC-165 identifier for this interface is 0xc5fd96cd interface ERC998ERC20TopDownEnumerable { /// @notice Get the number of ERC-20 contracts that token owns ERC-20 tokens from /// @param _tokenId The token that owns ERC-20 tokens. /// @return uint256 The number of ERC-20 contracts function totalERC20Contracts(uint256 _tokenId) external view returns(uint256); /// @notice Get an ERC-20 contract that token owns ERC-20 tokens from by index /// @param _tokenId The token that owns ERC-20 tokens. /// @param _index The index position of the ERC-20 contract. /// @return address The ERC-20 contract function erc20ContractByIndex( uint256 _tokenId, uint256 _index ) external view returns(address); }

ERC-721 Bottom-Up Composable

ERC-721 bottom-up composables are ERC-721 tokens that attach themselves to other ERC-721 tokens.

ERC-721 bottom-up composable contracts store the owning address of a token and the parent tokenId if any.

/// @title `ERC998ERC721` Bottom-Up Composable Non-Fungible Token /// @dev See https://github.com/ethereum/EIPs/blob/master/EIPS/eip-998.md /// Note: the ERC-165 identifier for this interface is 0xa1b23002 interface ERC998ERC721BottomUp { /// @dev This emits when a token is transferred to an ERC-721 token /// @param _toContract The contract the token is transferred to /// @param _toTokenId The token the token is transferred to /// @param _tokenId The token that is transferred event TransferToParent( address indexed _toContract, uint256 indexed _toTokenId, uint256 _tokenId ); /// @dev This emits when a token is transferred from an ERC-721 token /// @param _fromContract The contract the token is transferred from /// @param _fromTokenId The token the token is transferred from /// @param _tokenId The token that is transferred event TransferFromParent( address indexed _fromContract, uint256 indexed _fromTokenId, uint256 _tokenId ); /// @notice Get the root owner of tokenId. /// @param _tokenId The token to query for a root owner address /// @return rootOwner The root owner at the top of tree of tokens and ERC-998 magic value. function rootOwnerOf(uint256 _tokenId) external view returns (bytes32 rootOwner); /// @notice Get the owner address and parent token (if there is one) of a token /// @param _tokenId The tokenId to query. /// @return tokenOwner The owner address of the token /// @return parentTokenId The parent owner of the token and ERC-998 magic value /// @return isParent True if parentTokenId is a valid parent tokenId and false if there is no parent tokenId function tokenOwnerOf( uint256 _tokenId ) external view returns ( bytes32 tokenOwner, uint256 parentTokenId, bool isParent ); /// @notice Transfer token from owner address to a token /// @param _from The owner address /// @param _toContract The ERC-721 contract of the receiving token /// @param _toToken The receiving token /// @param _data Additional data with no specified format function transferToParent( address _from, address _toContract, uint256 _toTokenId, uint256 _tokenId, bytes _data ) external; /// @notice Transfer token from a token to an address /// @param _fromContract The address of the owning contract /// @param _fromTokenId The owning token /// @param _to The address the token is transferred to. /// @param _tokenId The token that is transferred /// @param _data Additional data with no specified format function transferFromParent( address _fromContract, uint256 _fromTokenId, address _to, uint256 _tokenId, bytes _data ) external; /// @notice Transfer a token from a token to another token /// @param _fromContract The address of the owning contract /// @param _fromTokenId The owning token /// @param _toContract The ERC-721 contract of the receiving token /// @param _toToken The receiving token /// @param _tokenId The token that is transferred /// @param _data Additional data with no specified format function transferAsChild( address _fromContract, uint256 _fromTokenId, address _toContract, uint256 _toTokenId, uint256 _tokenId, bytes _data ) external; }

rootOwnerOf

/// @notice Get the root owner of tokenId. /// @param _tokenId The token to query for a root owner address /// @return rootOwner The root owner at the top of tree of tokens and ERC-998 magic value. function rootOwnerOf(uint256 _tokenId) public view returns (bytes32 rootOwner);

This function traverses token owners until the the root owner address of _tokenId is found.

The first 4 bytes of rootOwner contain the ERC-998 magic value 0xcd740db5. The last 20 bytes contain the root owner address.

The magic value is returned because this function may be called on contracts when it is unknown if the contracts have a rootOwnerOf function. The magic value is used in such calls to ensure a valid return value is received.

If it is unknown whether a contract has the rootOwnerOf function then the first four bytes of the rootOwner return value must be compared to 0xcd740db5.

0xcd740db5 is equal to:

this.rootOwnerOf.selector ^ this.rootOwnerOfChild.selector ^ this.tokenOwnerOf.selector ^ this.ownerOfChild.selector;

Here is an example of a value returned by rootOwnerOf. 0xcd740db50000000000000000e5240103e1ff986a2c8ae6b6728ffe0d9a395c59

tokenOwnerOf

/// @notice Get the owner address and parent token (if there is one) of a token /// @param _tokenId The tokenId to query. /// @return tokenOwner The owner address of the token and ERC-998 magic value. /// @return parentTokenId The parent owner of the token /// @return isParent True if parentTokenId is a valid parent tokenId and false if there is no parent tokenId function tokenOwnerOf( uint256 _tokenId ) external view returns ( bytes32 tokenOwner, uint256 parentTokenId, bool isParent );

This function is used to get the owning address and parent tokenId of a token if there is one stored in the contract.

If isParent is true then tokenOwner is the owning ERC-721 contract address and parentTokenId is a valid parent tokenId. If isParent is false then tokenOwner is a user address and parentTokenId does not contain a valid parent tokenId and must be ignored.

The first 4 bytes of tokenOwner contain the ERC-998 magic value 0xcd740db5. The last 20 bytes contain the token owner address.

The magic value is returned because this function may be called on contracts when it is unknown if the contracts have a tokenOwnerOf function. The magic value is used in such calls to ensure a valid return value is received.

If it is unknown whether a contract has the rootOwnerOf function then the first four bytes of the tokenOwner return value must be compared to 0xcd740db5.

transferToParent

/// @notice Transfer token from owner address to a token /// @param _from The owner address /// @param _toContract The ERC-721 contract of the receiving token /// @param _toToken The receiving token /// @param _data Additional data with no specified format function transferToParent( address _from, address _toContract, uint256 _toTokenId, uint256 _tokenId, bytes _data ) external;

This function is used to transfer a token from an address to a token. msg.sender must be authenticated.

This function must check that _toToken exists in _toContract and throw if not.

transferFromParent

/// @notice Transfer token from a token to an address /// @param _fromContract The address of the owning contract /// @param _fromTokenId The owning token /// @param _to The address the token is transferred to. /// @param _tokenId The token that is transferred /// @param _data Additional data with no specified format function transferFromParent( address _fromContract, uint256 _fromTokenId, address _to, uint256 _tokenId, bytes _data ) external;

This function is used to transfer a token from a token to an address. msg.sender must be authenticated.

This function must check that _fromContract and _fromTokenId own _tokenId and throw not.

transferAsChild

/// @notice Transfer a token from a token to another token /// @param _fromContract The address of the owning contract /// @param _fromTokenId The owning token /// @param _toContract The ERC-721 contract of the receiving token /// @param _toToken The receiving token /// @param _tokenId The token that is transferred /// @param _data Additional data with no specified format function transferAsChild( address _fromContract, uint256 _fromTokenId, address _toContract, uint256 _toTokenId, uint256 _tokenId, bytes _data ) external;

This function is used to transfer a token from a token to another token. msg.sender must be authenticated.

This function must check that _toToken exists in _toContract and throw if not.

This function must check that _fromContract and _fromTokenId own _tokenId and throw if not.

ERC-721 Bottom-Up Composable Enumeration

Optional interface for bottom-up composable enumeration:

/// @dev The ERC-165 identifier for this interface is 0x8318b539 interface ERC998ERC721BottomUpEnumerable { /// @notice Get the number of ERC-721 tokens owned by parent token. /// @param _parentContract The contract the parent ERC-721 token is from. /// @param _parentTokenId The parent tokenId that owns tokens // @return uint256 The number of ERC-721 tokens owned by parent token. function totalChildTokens( address _parentContract, uint256 _parentTokenId ) external view returns (uint256); /// @notice Get a child token by index /// @param _parentContract The contract the parent ERC-721 token is from. /// @param _parentTokenId The parent tokenId that owns the token /// @param _index The index position of the child token /// @return uint256 The child tokenId owned by the parent token function childTokenByIndex( address _parentContract, uint256 _parentTokenId, uint256 _index ) external view returns (uint256); }

ERC-20 Bottom-Up Composable

ERC-20 bottom-up composables are ERC-20 tokens that attach themselves to ERC-721 tokens, or are owned by a user address like standard ERC-20 tokens.

When owned by an ERC-721 token, ERC-20 bottom-up composable contracts store the owning address of a token and the parent tokenId. ERC-20 bottom-up composables add several methods to the ERC-20 and ERC-223 interfaces allowing for querying the balance of parent tokens, and transferring tokens to, from, and between parent tokens.

This functionality can be implemented by adding one additional mapping to track balances of tokens, in addition to the standard mapping for tracking user address balances.

/// @dev This mapping tracks standard ERC20/`ERC-223` ownership, where an address owns /// a particular amount of tokens. mapping(address => uint) userBalances; /// @dev This additional mapping tracks ERC-998 ownership, where an ERC-721 token owns /// a particular amount of tokens. This tracks contractAddres => tokenId => balance mapping(address => mapping(uint => uint)) nftBalances;

The complete interface is below.

/// @title `ERC998ERC20` Bottom-Up Composable Fungible Token /// @dev See https://github.com/ethereum/EIPs/blob/master/EIPS/eip-998.md /// Note: The ERC-165 identifier for this interface is 0xffafa991 interface ERC998ERC20BottomUp { /// @dev This emits when a token is transferred to an ERC-721 token /// @param _toContract The contract the token is transferred to /// @param _toTokenId The token the token is transferred to /// @param _amount The amount of tokens transferred event TransferToParent( address indexed _toContract, uint256 indexed _toTokenId, uint256 _amount ); /// @dev This emits when a token is transferred from an ERC-721 token /// @param _fromContract The contract the token is transferred from /// @param _fromTokenId The token the token is transferred from /// @param _amount The amount of tokens transferred event TransferFromParent( address indexed _fromContract, uint256 indexed _fromTokenId, uint256 _amount ); /// @notice Get the balance of a non-fungible parent token /// @param _tokenContract The contract tracking the parent token /// @param _tokenId The ID of the parent token /// @return amount The balance of the token function balanceOfToken( address _tokenContract, uint256 _tokenId ) external view returns (uint256 amount); /// @notice Transfer tokens from owner address to a token /// @param _from The owner address /// @param _toContract The ERC-721 contract of the receiving token /// @param _toToken The receiving token /// @param _amount The amount of tokens to transfer function transferToParent( address _from, address _toContract, uint256 _toTokenId, uint256 _amount ) external; /// @notice Transfer token from a token to an address /// @param _fromContract The address of the owning contract /// @param _fromTokenId The owning token /// @param _to The address the token is transferred to /// @param _amount The amount of tokens to transfer function transferFromParent( address _fromContract, uint256 _fromTokenId, address _to, uint256 _amount ) external; /// @notice Transfer token from a token to an address, using `ERC-223` semantics /// @param _fromContract The address of the owning contract /// @param _fromTokenId The owning token /// @param _to The address the token is transferred to /// @param _amount The amount of tokens to transfer /// @param _data Additional data with no specified format, can be used to specify the sender tokenId function transferFromParentERC223( address _fromContract, uint256 _fromTokenId, address _to, uint256 _amount, bytes _data ) external; /// @notice Transfer a token from a token to another token /// @param _fromContract The address of the owning contract /// @param _fromTokenId The owning token /// @param _toContract The ERC-721 contract of the receiving token /// @param _toToken The receiving token /// @param _amount The amount tokens to transfer function transferAsChild( address _fromContract, uint256 _fromTokenId, address _toContract, uint256 _toTokenId, uint256 _amount ) external; }

balanceOfToken

/// @notice Get the balance of a non-fungible parent token /// @param _tokenContract The contract tracking the parent token /// @param _tokenId The ID of the parent token /// @return amount The balance of the token function balanceOfToken( address _tokenContract, uint256 _tokenId ) external view returns (uint256 amount);

This function returns the balance of a non-fungible token. It mirrors the standard ERC-20 method balanceOf, but accepts the address of the parent token's contract, and the parent token's ID. This method behaves identically to balanceOf, but checks for ownership by ERC-721 tokens rather than user addresses.

transferToParent

/// @notice Transfer tokens from owner address to a token /// @param _from The owner address /// @param _toContract The ERC-721 contract of the receiving token /// @param _toToken The receiving token /// @param _amount The amount of tokens to transfer function transferToParent( address _from, address _toContract, uint256 _toTokenId, uint256 _amount ) external;

This function transfers an amount of tokens from a user address to an ERC-721 token. This function MUST ensure that the recipient contract implements ERC-721 using the ERC-165 supportsInterface function. This function SHOULD ensure that the recipient token actually exists, by calling ownerOf on the recipient token's contract, and ensuring it neither throws nor returns the zero address. This function MUST emit the TransferToParent event upon a successful transfer (in addition to the standard ERC-20 Transfer event!). This function MUST throw if the _from account balance does not have enough tokens to spend.

transferFromParent

/// @notice Transfer token from a token to an address /// @param _fromContract The address of the owning contract /// @param _fromTokenId The owning token /// @param _to The address the token is transferred to /// @param _amount The amount of tokens to transfer function transferFromParent( address _fromContract, uint256 _fromTokenId, address _to, uint256 _amount ) external;

This function transfers an amount of tokens from an ERC-721 token to an address. This function MUST emit the TransferFromParent event upon a successful transfer (in addition to the standard ERC-20 Transfer event!). This function MUST throw if the balance of the sender ERC-721 token is less than the _amount specified. This function MUST verify that the msg.sender owns the sender ERC-721 token, and MUST throw otherwise.

transferFromParentERC223

/// @notice Transfer token from a token to an address, using `ERC-223` semantics /// @param _fromContract The address of the owning contract /// @param _fromTokenId The owning token /// @param _to The address the token is transferred to /// @param _amount The amount of tokens to transfer /// @param _data Additional data with no specified format, can be used to specify the sender tokenId function transferFromParentERC223( address _fromContract, uint256 _fromTokenId, address _to, uint256 _amount, bytes _data ) external;

This function transfers an amount of tokens from an ERC-721 token to an address. This function has identical requirements to transferFromParent, except that it additionally MUST invoke tokenFallback on the recipient address, if the address is a contract, as specified by ERC-223.

transferAsChild 1

/// @notice Transfer a token from a token to another token /// @param _fromContract The address of the owning contract /// @param _fromTokenId The owning token /// @param _toContract The ERC-721 contract of the receiving token /// @param _toToken The receiving token /// @param _amount The amount tokens to transfer function transferAsChild( address _fromContract, uint256 _fromTokenId, address _toContract, uint256 _toTokenId, uint256 _amount ) external;

This function transfers an amount of tokens from an ERC-721 token to another ERC-721 token. This function MUST emit BOTH the TransferFromParent and TransferToParent events (in addition to the standard ERC-20 Transfer event!). This function MUST throw if the balance of the sender ERC-721 token is less than the _amount specified. This function MUST verify that the msg.sender owns the sender ERC-721 token, and MUST throw otherwise. This function MUST ensure that the recipient contract implements ERC-721 using the ERC-165 supportsInterface function. This function SHOULD ensure that the recipient token actually exists, by calling ownerOf on the recipient token's contract, and ensuring it neither throws nor returns the zero address.

Notes

For backwards-compatibility, implementations MUST emit the standard ERC-20 Transfer event when a transfer occurs, regardless of whether the sender and recipient are addresses or ERC-721 tokens. In the case that either sender or recipient are tokens, the corresponding parameter in the Transfer event SHOULD be the contract address of the token.

Implementations MUST implement all ERC-20 and ERC-223 functions in addition to the functions specified in this interface.

Rationale

Two different kinds of composable (top-down and bottom-up) exist to handle different use cases. A regular ERC-721 token cannot own a top-down composable, but it can own a bottom-up composable. A bottom-up composable cannot own a regular ERC-721 but a top-down composable can own a regular ERC-721 token. Having multiple kinds of composables enable different token ownership possibilities.

Which Kind of Composable To Use?

If you want to transfer regular ERC-721 tokens to non-fungible tokens, then use top-down composables.

If you want to transfer non-fungible tokens to regular ERC-721 tokens then use bottom-up composables.

Explicit Transfer Parameters

Every ERC-998 transfer function includes explicit parameters to specify the prior owner and the new owner of a token. Explicitly providing from and to is done intentionally to avoid situations where tokens are transferred in unintended ways.

Here is an example of what could occur if from was not explicitly provided in transfer functions:

An exchange contract is an approved operator in a specific composable contract for user A, user B and user C.

User A transfers token 1 to user B. At the same time the exchange contract transfers token 1 to user C (with the implicit intention to transfer from user A). User B gets token 1 for a minute before it gets incorrectly transferred to user C. The second transfer should have failed but it didn't because no explicit from was provided to ensure that token 1 came from user A.

Backwards Compatibility

Composables are designed to work with ERC-721, ERC-223 and ERC-20 tokens.

Some older ERC-721 contracts do not have a safeTransferFrom function. The getChild function can still be used to transfer a token to an ERC-721 top-down composable.

If an ERC-20 contract does not have the ERC-223 function transfer(address _to, uint _value, bytes _data) then the getERC20 function can still be used to transfer ERC-20 tokens to an ERC-20 top-down composable.

Reference Implementation

An implementation can be found here: https://github.com/mattlockyer/composables-998

Security Considerations

Needs discussion.

Copyright and related rights waived via CC0.

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