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ERC-6909

Minimal Multi-Token Interface

A minimal specification for managing multiple tokens by their id in a single contract.
DraftStandards Track: ERC
创建时间: 2023-04-19
关联 EIP: EIP-165
Joshua Trujillo (@jtriley-eth)
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Abstract

The following standard specifies a multi-token contract as a simplified alternative to the ERC-1155 Multi-Token Standard.

Motivation

The ERC-1155 standard includes unnecessary features such as requiring recipient accounts with code to implement callbacks returning specific values and batch-calls in the specification. In addition, the single operator permission scheme grants unlimited allowance on every token ID in the contract. Backwards compatibility is deliberately removed only where necessary. Additional features such as batch calls, increase and decrease allowance methods, and other user experience improvements are deliberately omitted in the specification to minimize the required external interface.

According to ERC-1155, callbacks are required for each transfer and batch transfer to contract accounts. This requires potentially unnecessary external calls to the recipient when the recipient account is a contract account. While this behavior may be desirable in some cases, there is no option to opt-out of this behavior, as is the case for ERC-721 having both transferFrom and safeTransferFrom. In addition to runtime performance of the token contract itself, it also impacts the runtime performance and codesize of recipient contract accounts, requiring multiple callback functions and return values to recieve the tokens.

Batching transfers, while useful, are excluded from this standard to allow for opinionated batch transfer operations on different implementations. For example, a different ABI encoding may provide different benefits in different environments such as calldata size optimization for rollups with calldata storage commitments or runtime performance for environments with expensive gas fees.

A hybrid allowance-operator permission scheme enables granular yet scalable controls on token approvals. Allowances enable an external account to transfer tokens of a single token ID on a user's behalf w by their ID while operators are granted full transfer permission for all token IDs for the user.

Specification

The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 and RFC 8174.

Definitions

  • infinite: The maximum value for a uint256 (2 ** 256 - 1).
  • caller: The caller of the current context (msg.sender).
  • spender: An account that transfers tokens on behalf of another account.
  • operator: An account that has unlimited transfer permissions on all token ids for another account.
  • mint: The creation of an amount of tokens. This MAY happen in a mint method or as a transfer from the zero address.
  • burn: The removal an amount of tokens. This MAY happen in a burn method or as a transfer to the zero address.

Methods

totalSupply

The total amount of a token id that exists.

MUST be equal to the sum of the balanceOf of all accounts of the token id.

- name: totalSupply type: function stateMutability: view inputs: - name: id type: uint256 outputs: - name: amount type: uint256

balanceOf

The total amount of a token id that an owner owns.

- name: balanceOf type: function stateMutability: view inputs: - name: owner type: address - name: id type: uint256 outputs: - name: amount type: uint256

allowance

The total amount of a token id that a spender is permitted to transfer on behalf of an owner.

- name: allowance type: function stateMutability: view inputs: - name: owner type: address - name: spender type: address - name: id type: uint256 outputs: - name: amount type: uint256

isOperator

Returns true if the spender is approved as an operator for an owner.

- name: isOperator type: function stateMutability: view inputs: - name: owner type: address - name: spender type: address outputs: - name: status type: bool

transfer

Transfers an amount of a token id from the caller to the receiver.

MUST revert when the caller's balance for the token id is insufficient.

MUST log the Transfer event.

MUST return True.

- name: transfer type: function stateMutability: nonpayable inputs: - name: receiver type: address - name: id type: uint256 - name: amount type: uint256 outputs: - name: success type: bool

transferFrom

Transfers an amount of a token id from a sender to a receiver by the caller.

MUST revert when the caller is not an operator for the sender and the caller's allowance for the token id for the sender is insufficient.

MUST revert when the sender's balance for the token id is insufficient.

MUST log the Transfer event.

MUST decrease the caller's allowance by the same amount of the sender's balance decrease if the caller is not an operator for the sender and the caller's allowance is not infinite.

SHOULD NOT decrease the caller's allowance for the token id for the sender if the allowance is infinite.

SHOULD NOT decrease the caller's allowance for the token id for the sender if the caller is an operator.

MUST return True.

- name: transferFrom type: function stateMutability: nonpayable inputs: - name: sender type: address - name: receiver type: address - name: id type: uint256 - name: amount type: uint256 outputs: - name: success type: bool

approve

Approves an amount of a token id that a spender is permitted to transfer on behalf of the caller.

MUST set the allowance of the spender of the token id for the caller to the amount.

MUST log the Approval event.

MUST return True.

- name: approve type: function stateMutability: nonpayable inputs: - name: spender type: address - name: id type: uint256 - name: amount type: uint256 outputs: - name: success type: bool

setOperator

Grants or revokes unlimited transfer permissions for a spender for any token id on behalf of the caller.

MUST set the operator status to the approved value.

MUST log the OperatorSet event.

MUST return True.

- name: setOperator type: function stateMutability: nonpayable inputs: - name: spender type: address - name: approved type: bool outputs: - name: success type: bool

Events

Transfer

The caller initiates a transfer of an amount of a token id from a sender to a receiver.

MUST be logged when an amount of a token id is transferred from one account to another.

SHOULD be logged with the sender address as the zero address when an amount of a token id is minted.

SHOULD be logged with the receiver address as the zero address when an amount of a token id is burned.

- name: Transfer type: event inputs: - name: caller indexed: false type: address - name: sender indexed: true type: address - name: receiver indexed: true type: address - name: id indexed: true type: uint256 - name: amount indexed: false type: uint256

OperatorSet

The owner has set the approved status to a spender.

MUST be logged when the operator status is set.

MAY be logged when the operator status is set to the same status it was before the current call.

- name: OperatorSet type: event inputs: - name: owner indexed: true type: address - name: spender indexed: true type: address - name: approved indexed: false type: bool

Approval

The owner has approved a spender to transfer an amount of a token id to be transferred on the owner's behalf.

MUST be logged when the allowance is set by an owner.

- name: Approval type: event inputs: - name: owner indexed: true type: address - name: spender indexed: true type: address - name: id indexed: true type: uint256 - name: amount indexed: false type: uint256

Rationale

Granular Approvals

While the "operator model" from the ERC-1155 standard allows an account to set another account as an operator, giving full permissions to transfer any amount of any token id on behalf of the owner, this may not always be the desired permission scheme. The "allowance model" from ERC-20 allows an account to set an explicit amount of the token that another account can spend on the owner's behalf. This standard requires both be implemented, with the only modification being to the "allowance model" where the token id must be specified as well. This allows an account to grant specific approvals to specific token ids, infinite approvals to specific token ids, or infinite approvals to all token ids. If an account is set as an operator, the allowance SHOULD NOT be decreased when tokens are transferred on behalf of the owner.

Removal of Batching

While batching operations is useful, its place should not be in the standard itself, but rather on a case-by-case basis. This allows for different tradeoffs to be made in terms of calldata layout, which may be especially useful for specific applications such as roll-ups that commit calldata to global storage.

Removal of Required Callbacks

Callbacks MAY be used within a multi-token compliant contract, but it is not required. This allows for more gas efficient methods by reducing external calls and additional checks.

Removal of "Safe" Naming

The safeTransfer and safeTransferFrom naming conventions are misleading, especially in the context of the ERC-1155 and ERC-721 standards, as they require external calls to receiver accounts with code, passing the execution flow to an arbitrary contract, provided the receiver contract returns a specific value. The combination of removing mandatory callbacks and removing the word "safe" from all method names improves the safety of the control flow by default.

Interface ID

The interface ID is 0xb2e69f8a.

Metadata Extension

Methods

name

The name of the contract.

- name: name type: function stateMutability: view inputs: [] outputs: - name: name type: string
symbol

The ticker symbol of the contract.

- name: symbol type: function stateMutability: view inputs: [] outputs: - name: symbol type: string
decimals

The amount of decimals for a token id.

- name: decimals type: function stateMutability: view inputs: - name: id type: uint256 outputs: - name: amount type: uint8

Metadata URI Extension

Methods

tokenURI

The URI for a token id.

MAY revert if the token id does not exist.

MUST replace occurrences of {id} in the returned URI string by the client.

- name: tokenURI type: function stateMutability: view inputs: - name: id type: uint256 outputs: - name: uri type: string

Metadata Structure

The metadata specification closely follows that of the ERC-721 JSON schema.

MUST replace occurrences of {id} in the returned URI string by the client.

{ "title": "Asset Metadata", "type": "object", "properties": { "name": { "type": "string", "description": "Identifies the token" }, "description": { "type": "string", "description": "Describes the token" }, "image": { "type": "string", "description": "A URI pointing to an image resource." } } }

Backwards Compatibility

This is not backwards compatible with ERC-1155 as some methods are removed. However, wrappers can be implemented for the ERC-20, ERC-721, and ERC-1155 standards.

Reference Implementation

// SPDX-License-Identifier: CC0-1.0 pragma solidity 0.8.19; /// @title ERC6909 Multi-Token Reference Implementation /// @author jtriley.eth contract ERC6909 { /// @dev Thrown when owner balance for id is insufficient. /// @param owner The address of the owner. /// @param id The id of the token. error InsufficientBalance(address owner, uint256 id); /// @dev Thrown when spender allowance for id is insufficient. /// @param spender The address of the spender. /// @param id The id of the token. error InsufficientPermission(address spender, uint256 id); /// @notice The event emitted when a transfer occurs. /// @param sender The address of the sender. /// @param receiver The address of the receiver. /// @param id The id of the token. /// @param amount The amount of the token. event Transfer(address caller, address indexed sender, address indexed receiver, uint256 indexed id, uint256 amount); /// @notice The event emitted when an operator is set. /// @param owner The address of the owner. /// @param spender The address of the spender. /// @param approved The approval status. event OperatorSet(address indexed owner, address indexed spender, bool approved); /// @notice The event emitted when an approval occurs. /// @param owner The address of the owner. /// @param spender The address of the spender. /// @param id The id of the token. /// @param amount The amount of the token. event Approval(address indexed owner, address indexed spender, uint256 indexed id, uint256 amount); /// @notice The total supply of each id. mapping(uint256 id => uint256 amount) public totalSupply; /// @notice Owner balance of an id. mapping(address owner => mapping(uint256 id => uint256 amount)) public balanceOf; /// @notice Spender allowance of an id. mapping(address owner => mapping(address spender => mapping(uint256 id => uint256 amount))) public allowance; /// @notice Checks if a spender is approved by an owner as an operator. mapping(address owner => mapping(address spender => bool)) public isOperator; /// @notice Transfers an amount of an id from the caller to a receiver. /// @param receiver The address of the receiver. /// @param id The id of the token. /// @param amount The amount of the token. function transfer(address receiver, uint256 id, uint256 amount) public returns (bool) { if (balanceOf[msg.sender][id] < amount) revert InsufficientBalance(msg.sender, id); balanceOf[msg.sender][id] -= amount; balanceOf[receiver][id] += amount; emit Transfer(msg.sender, msg.sender, receiver, id, amount); return true; } /// @notice Transfers an amount of an id from a sender to a receiver. /// @param sender The address of the sender. /// @param receiver The address of the receiver. /// @param id The id of the token. /// @param amount The amount of the token. function transferFrom(address sender, address receiver, uint256 id, uint256 amount) public returns (bool) { if (sender != msg.sender && !isOperator[sender][msg.sender]) { uint256 senderAllowance = allowance[sender][msg.sender][id]; if (senderAllowance < amount) revert InsufficientPermission(msg.sender, id); if (senderAllowance != type(uint256).max) { allowance[sender][msg.sender][id] = senderAllowance - amount; } } if (balanceOf[sender][id] < amount) revert InsufficientBalance(sender, id); balanceOf[sender][id] -= amount; balanceOf[receiver][id] += amount; emit Transfer(msg.sender, sender, receiver, id, amount); return true; } /// @notice Approves an amount of an id to a spender. /// @param spender The address of the spender. /// @param id The id of the token. /// @param amount The amount of the token. function approve(address spender, uint256 id, uint256 amount) public returns (bool) { allowance[msg.sender][spender][id] = amount; emit Approval(msg.sender, spender, id, amount); return true; } /// @notice Sets or removes a spender as an operator for the caller. /// @param spender The address of the spender. /// @param approved The approval status. function setOperator(address spender, bool approved) public returns (bool) { isOperator[msg.sender][spender] = approved; emit OperatorSet(msg.sender, spender, approved); return true; } /// @notice Checks if a contract implements an interface. /// @param interfaceId The interface identifier, as specified in ERC-165. /// @return supported True if the contract implements `interfaceId`. function supportsInterface(bytes4 interfaceId) public pure returns (bool supported) { return interfaceId == 0xb2e69f8a || interfaceId == 0x01ffc9a7; } function _mint(address receiver, uint256 id, uint256 amount) internal { // WARNING: important safety checks should precede calls to this method. balanceOf[receiver][id] += amount; totalSupply[id] += amount; emit Transfer(msg.sender, address(0), receiver, id, amount); } function _burn(address sender, uint256 id, uint256 amount) internal { // WARNING: important safety checks should precede calls to this method. balanceOf[sender][id] -= amount; totalSupply[id] -= amount; emit Transfer(msg.sender, sender, address(0), id, amount); } }

Security Considerations

Approvals and Operators

The specification includes two token transfer permission systems, the "allowance" and "operator" models. There are two security considerations in regards to delegating permission to transfer.

The first consideration is consistent with all delegated permission models. Any account with an allowance may transfer the full allowance for any reason at any time until the allowance is revoked. Any account with operator permissions may transfer any amount of any token id on behalf of the owner until the operator permission is revoked.

The second consideration is unique to systems with both delegated permission models. In accordance with the transferFrom method, spenders with operator permission are not subject to allowance restrictions, spenders with infinite approvals SHOULD NOT have their allowance deducted on delegated transfers, but spenders with non-infinite approvals MUST have their balance deducted on delegated transfers. A spender with both operator permission and a non-infinite approval may introduce functional ambiguity. If the operator permission takes precedence, that is, the allowance is never deducted when a spender has operator permissions, there is no ambiguity. However, in the event the allowance takes precedence over the operator permissions, an additional branch may be necessary to ensure an allowance underflow does not occur. The following is an example of such an issue.

contract ERC6909OperatorPrecedence { // -- snip -- function transferFrom(address sender, address receiver, uint256 id, uint256 amount) public { // check if `isOperator` first if (msg.sender != sender && !isOperator[sender][msg.sender]) { require(allowance[sender][msg.sender][id] >= amount, "insufficient allowance"); allowance[sender][msg.sender][id] -= amount; } // -- snip -- } } contract ERC6909AllowancePrecedence { // -- snip -- function transferFrom(address sender, address receiver, uint256 id, uint256 amount) public { // check if allowance is sufficient first if (msg.sender != sender && allowance[sender][msg.sender][id] < amount) { require(isOperator[sender][msg.sender], "insufficient allowance"); } // ERROR: when allowance is insufficient, this panics due to arithmetic underflow, regardless of // whether the caller has operator permissions. allowance[sender][msg.sender][id] -= amount; // -- snip } }

Copyright and related rights waived via CC0.

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