Unlimited SWAP and DUP instructions
EIP-663 proposes the introduction of two new instructions, SWAPN and DUPN, which will allow accessing the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM) stack up to a depth of 256 items, lifting the current limitation of 16. The motivation behind this proposal is to simplify accessing deep stack items, which can be complex and inefficient when using the current method of manually keeping them in memory or through a "stack to memory elevation" in a compiler. Additionally, implementing higher-level constructs such as functions on top of EVM can result in a list of input and output parameters that can easily exceed 16, requiring extra care from a compiler to lay them out in a way that all of them are still accessible. The introduction of SWAPN and DUPN will provide an option to compilers to simplify accessing deep stack items at the price of possibly increased gas costs. The proposal introduces two new instructions, DUPN (0xb5) and SWAPN (0xb6), which are followed by an 8-bit immediate value, called imm, and can have a value of 0 to 255. The variable n is introduced, which equals imm + 1. If the current stack height is less than n, then a stack underflow exception is issued for DUPN. If the code is legacy bytecode, both of these instructions result in an exceptional halt, meaning no change to behavior. EIP-663 is currently in the process of being peer-reviewed.
DUP instructions are limited to a stack depth of 16. Introduce two new instructions,
DUPN, which lift this limitation and allow accessing the stack up to depth of 256 items.
While the stack is 1024 items deep, easy access is only possible for the top 16 items. Supporting more local variables is possible via manually keeping them in memory or through a "stack to memory elevation" in a compiler. This can result in complex and inefficient code.
Furthermore, implementing higher level constructs, such as functions, on top of EVM will result in a list of input and output parameters as well as an instruction offset to return to.
The number of these arguments (or stack items) can easily exceed 16 and thus will require extra care from a compiler to lay them out in a way that all of them are still accessible.
DUPN will provide an option to compilers to simplify accessing deep stack items at the price of possibly increased gas costs.
We introduce two new instructions:
If the code is legacy bytecode, both of these instructions result in an exceptional halt. (Note: This means no change to behaviour.)
If the code is valid EOF1, the following rules apply:
These instructions are followed by an 8-bit immediate value, which we call
imm, and can have a value of 0 to 255. We introduce the variable
nwhich equals to
imm + 1.
Code validation is extended to check that no relative jump instruction (
RJUMPV) targets immmediate values of
The stack validation algorithm of EIP-5450 is extended: 3.1. Before
DUPNif the current stack height is less than
n, code is invalid. After
DUPNstack height is incremented. 3.2. Before
SWAPNif the current stack height is less than
n + 1, code is invalid. After
SWAPNstack height is not changed.
Execution rules: 4.1.
n'th stack item is duplicated at the top of the stack. (Note: We use 1-based indexing here.) 4.2
n + 1th stack item is swapped with the top stack item.
The gas cost for both instructions is set at 3.
Since this instruction depends on an immediate argument encoding, it can only be enabled within EOF. In legacy bytecode that encoding could contradict jumpdest-analysis.
Size of immediate argument
A 16-bit size was considered to accommodate the full stack space of 1024 items, however:
- that would require an additional restriction/check (
n < 1024)
- the 256 depth is a large improvement over the current 16 and the overhead of an extra byte would make it less useful
This has no effect on backwards compatibility because the opcodes were not previously allocated and the feature is only enabled in EOF.
n, which equals to
imm + 1, for
1 <= n <= 256:
- `DUPN imm` to fail validation if `stack_height < n`.
- `SWAPN imm` to fail validation if `stack_height < (n + 1)`.
- `DUPN imm` to increment maximum stack height of a function. Validation fails if maximum stack height exceeds limit of 1023.
- `DUPN imm` and `SWAPN imm` to fail at run-time if gas available is less than 3.
- otherwise `DUPN imm` should push the `stack[n]` item to the stack, and `SWAPN imm` should swap `stack[n + 1]` with `stack[stack.top()]`.
The authors are not aware of any additional risks introduced here. The EVM stack is fixed at 1024 items and most implementations keep that in memory at all times. This change will increase the easy-to-access number of items from 16 to 256.
Copyright and related rights waived via CC0.
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