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EIPsERC-6464
ERC-6464

Multi-operator, per-token ERC-721 approvals.

Extends ERC-721 to allow token owners to approve multiple operators to control their assets on a per-token basis.
StagnantStandards Track: ERC
Created: 2023-02-02
Requires: EIP-165, EIP-721
Cristian Espinoza (@crisgarner), Simon Fremaux (@dievardump), David Huber (@cxkoda), and Arran Schlosberg (@aschlosberg)
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The ERC-6464 proposal extends the ERC-721 standard to allow token owners to approve multiple operators to control their assets on a per-token basis. This fine-grained, on-chain approval mechanism removes unnecessary access permissions and reduces the surface for exploits. The proposal includes an efficient mechanism for broad revocation of approvals via incrementing nonces. The extended contracts remain fully compatible with all existing platforms. The proposal also notes security considerations, including the interplay with setApprovalForAll() and other risks. The reference implementation is yet to be added. The proposal aims to address the security risks associated with the current predominant way of authorizing operators, setApprovalForAll(), which grants the approved address control over all assets and has been exploited in phishing attacks.

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Abstract

ERC-721 did not foresee the approval of multiple operators to manage a specific token on behalf of its owner. This lead to the establishment of setApprovalForAll() as the predominant way to authorise operators, which affords the approved address control over all assets and creates an unnecessarily broad security risk that has already been exploited in a multitude of phishing attacks. The presented EIP extends ERC-721 by introducing a fine-grained, on-chain approval mechanism that allows owners to authorise multiple, specific operators on a per-token basis; this removes unnecessary access permissions and shrinks the surface for exploits to a minimum. The provided reference implementation further enables cheap revocation of all approvals on a per-owner or per-token basis.

Motivation

The NFT standard defined in ERC-721 allows token owners to "approve" arbitrary addresses to control their tokens—the approved addresses are known as "operators". Two types of approval were defined:

  1. approve(address,uint256) provides a mechanism for only a single operator to be approved for a given tokenId; and
  2. setApprovalForAll(address,bool) toggles whether an operator is approved for every token owned by msg.sender.

With the introduction of multiple NFT marketplaces, the ability to approve multiple operators for a particular token is necessary if sellers wish to allow each marketplace to transfer a token upon sale. There is, however, no mechanism for achieving this without using setApprovalForAll(). This is in conflict with the principle of least privilege and creates an attack vector that is exploited by phishing for malicious (i.e. zero-cost) sell-side signatures that are executed by legitimate marketplace contracts.

This EIP therefore defines a fine-grained approach for approving multiple operators but scoped to specific token(s).

Goals

  1. Ease of adoption for marketplaces; requires minimal changes to existing workflows.
  2. Ease of adoption for off-chain approval-indexing services.
  3. Simple revocation of approvals; i.e. not requiring one per grant.

Non-goals

  1. Security measures for protecting NFTs other than through limiting the scope of operator approvals.
  2. Compatibility with ERC-1155 semi-fungible tokens. However we note that the mechanisms described herein are also applicable to ERC-1155 token types without requiring approval for all other types.

Specification

The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 and RFC 8174.

To comply with this EIP, a contract MUST implement IERC6464 (defined herein) and the ERC165 and ERC721 interfaces; see ERC-165 and ERC-721 respectively.

/** * @notice Extends ERC-721 to include per-token approval for multiple operators. * @dev Off-chain indexers of approvals SHOULD assume that an operator is approved if either of `ERC721.Approval(…)` or * `ERC721.ApprovalForAll(…, true)` events are witnessed without the corresponding revocation(s), even if an * `ExplicitApprovalFor(…, false)` is emitted. * @dev TODO: the ERC-165 identifier for this interface is TBD. */ interface IERC6464 is ERC721 { /** * @notice Emitted when approval is explicitly granted or revoked for a token. */ event ExplicitApprovalFor( address indexed operator, uint256 indexed tokenId, bool approved ); /** * @notice Emitted when all explicit approvals, as granted by either `setExplicitApprovalFor()` function, are * revoked for all tokens. * @dev MUST be emitted upon calls to `revokeAllExplicitApprovals()`. */ event AllExplicitApprovalsRevoked(address indexed owner); /** * @notice Emitted when all explicit approvals, as granted by either `setExplicitApprovalFor()` function, are * revoked for the specific token. * @param owner MUST be `ownerOf(tokenId)` as per ERC721; in the case of revocation due to transfer, this MUST be * the `from` address expected to be emitted in the respective `ERC721.Transfer()` event. */ event AllExplicitApprovalsRevoked( address indexed owner, uint256 indexed tokenId ); /** * @notice Approves the operator to manage the asset on behalf of its owner. * @dev Throws if `msg.sender` is not the current NFT owner, or an authorised operator of the current owner. * @dev Approvals set via this method MUST be revoked upon transfer of the token to a new owner; equivalent to * calling `revokeAllExplicitApprovals(tokenId)`, including associated events. * @dev MUST emit `ApprovalFor(operator, tokenId, approved)`. * @dev MUST NOT have an effect on any standard ERC721 approval setters / getters. */ function setExplicitApproval( address operator, uint256 tokenId, bool approved ) external; /** * @notice Approves the operator to manage the token(s) on behalf of their owner. * @dev MUST be equivalent to calling `setExplicitApprovalFor(operator, tokenId, approved)` for each `tokenId` in * the array. */ function setExplicitApproval( address operator, uint256[] memory tokenIds, bool approved ) external; /** * @notice Revokes all explicit approvals granted by `msg.sender`. * @dev MUST emit `AllExplicitApprovalsRevoked(msg.sender)`. */ function revokeAllExplicitApprovals() external; /** * @notice Revokes all excplicit approvals granted for the specified token. * @dev Throws if `msg.sender` is not the current NFT owner, or an authorised operator of the current owner. * @dev MUST emit `AllExplicitApprovalsRevoked(msg.sender, tokenId)`. */ function revokeAllExplicitApprovals(uint256 tokenId) external; /** * @notice Query whether an address is an approved operator for a token. */ function isExplicitlyApprovedFor(address operator, uint256 tokenId) external view returns (bool); } interface IERC6464AnyApproval is ERC721 { /** * @notice Returns true if any of the following criteria are met: * 1. `isExplicitlyApprovedFor(operator, tokenId) == true`; OR * 2. `isApprovedForAll(ownerOf(tokenId), operator) == true`; OR * 3. `getApproved(tokenId) == operator`. * @dev The criteria MUST be extended if other mechanism(s) for approving operators are introduced. The criteria * MUST include all approval approaches. */ function isApprovedFor(address operator, uint256 tokenId) external view returns (bool); }

Rationale

Draft notes to be expanded upon

  1. Approvals granted via the newly introduced methods are called explicit as a means of easily distinguishing them from those granted via the standard ERC721.approve() and ERC721.setApprovalForAll() functions. However they follow the same intent: authorising operators to act on the owner's behalf.
  2. Abstracting isApprovedFor() into IERC6464AnyApproval interface, as against keeping it in IERC6464 allows for modularity of plain IERC6464 implementations while also standardising the interface for checking approvals when interfacing with specific implementations and any future approval EIPs.
  3. Inclusion of an indexed owner address in AllExplicitApprovalsRevoked(address,uint256) assists off-chain indexing of existing approvals.
  4. Re IERC6464AnyApproval: With an increasing number of approval mechanisms it becomes cumbersome for marketplaces to integrate with them since they have to query multiple interfaces to check if they are approved to manage tokens. This provides a streamlined interface, intended to simplify data ingestion for them.

Backwards Compatibility

This extension was written to allow for the smallest change possible to the original ERC-721 spec while still providing a mechanism to grant, revoke and track approvals of multiple operators on a per-token basis.

Extended contracts remain fully compatible with all existing platforms.

Note the Security Considerations sub-section on Other risks regarding interplay of approval types.

Reference Implementation

TODO: add internal link to assets directory when the implementation is in place.

An efficient mechanism for broad revocation of approvals via incrementing nonces is included.

Security Considerations

Threat model

Mitigations

Other risks

TODO: Interplay with setApprovalForAll().

Needs discussion.

Copyright and related rights waived via CC0.

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